Stupa Architecture Pdf





Craig Reynolds writes The stupa is a symbolic form that pullulates throghout South Southeast and East Asia. Architecture: India Kashmir; Patan Sugandhesa Temple Left side of temple 844. The architecture demonstrates a clear allusion to the sectarianism that had started during the period as different areas were assigned to different Gods. English: Vishwa Shanti Stupa was a dream of Fujii guruji as called by M. Hindu temples from even late antiquity. The Stupa Pattern of monuments and buildings are styled mainly hemispherical round shape in bottom and segmented part to part round up to top and decorated with images pattern of different sects of Buddhism atop. , स्तूप, stūpa, literally meaning "heap") is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, once thought to be places of Buddhist worship, typically the remains of a Buddha or saint. It has an attractive dome shaped roof which is peaked at the top of the building. Significance of Cave. Adrian Snodgrass: The Symbolism of the Stupa. This may contain bodily remains of the Buddha or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious stones, and coins. In this lesson kailashi had explained about the caves and stupa architecture. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were. ppt), PDF File (. MAURYAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE The origins of monumental stone sculpture and architecture in the Indian subcontinent go back to the Harappan civilisation. What is a stupa? 56. Moreover, the present Shwedagon Pagoda of Burmese stupa Architecture reaches its apex. Ajanta, Ellora caves and the Bagh cave paintings denote the Buddhist outline, which was very popular during the Gupta period. Stupa Architecture 3. Symbolism and function of the Buddhist and the Hindu monastic Architecture. GK, General Studies, Optional notes for UPSC, IAS, Banking, Civil Services. 10 The stupa is therefore a type of shrine: a religious structure dedicated to a specific person or deity. Wat Arun Proportion. 8 out of 5 stars 122. A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism. Discuss; Bamiyan in Afghanistan- Features and Fall of. Hindu temples are of different shapes and sizes — rectangular, octagonal, semicircular — with different types of domes and gates. ContentsStupasThree Types of StupasThe Bharhut StupaSanchi StupaDhamekha StupaChaityas a. 1 During theHan dynasty (c. Sanchi Stupa Tourist Map - Sanchi MP TOURISM CAFETERIA Gateway etreate ASI Museum- Sanchi Chetiyagiri Temple Sanchi Stupa. Circumambulation. Architecture, Design, Architecture And The Origin Of Architecture - Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Features of stupa architecture i. A stupa is a hemispherical structure having the remains of Buddhist monks and nuns while apse is a semi-circular structure having a vault or semi-dome. The dome covered a square base with a small receptacle in the centre containing relics, while a space for circumambulation was defined around the dome. Answer: The Stupas represent the ancient symbols of Buddha worship and are the earliest specimens of Buddhism art and architecture. Content: [396 Pages] 1. Stupa - architecture, gateway; Stupa at Ranchi and Amaravati; Sunga influence on Mauryan Sculpture; Post Maurya Period Cave- Karle. Architecture of the Muttodaya Stúpa Why build a stúpa? The German Buddhist forest monastery Muttodaya, situated in the Frankonian Forest near Stammbach, district Hof, was inaugurated on Vesakh day, the full moon in May 2008. * A Late Phase vihara, Cave 16 has its original entrance stairway (unique in Ajanta). Il Dhamek Stupa è stato costruito attorno al 500 per sostituire una precedente struttura commissionata dal. From excavated remains, it is clear that the Indus Valley civilization possessed a flourishing urban architecture. Buddhism is the single common thread uniting the Asian world, from India to South-East Asia and through Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan. The term "reliquary" is sometimes used, after a Christian. Inside the cathedral, built in the year 1104. Architecture Architecturally also, stupa is the most important Buddhist structure. The stupa ("stupa" is Sanskrit for heap) is an important form of Buddhist architecture, though it predates Buddhism. Art of Bharhut, Sanchi, and Amaravati. Earlier structure of the stupa was a simple structure, with limestone crossbars and simple carvings, but was later renovated by the Satavahana rulers, after which it became a highly marked architectural monument. pdf - In festival season mostly. The planetary structure of Shwedagon Pagoda are Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, March, Jupiter, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu. At its simplest, a stupa is a dirt burial mound faced with stone. art, there are three categories: (1) architecture; (2) sculpture and (3) painting. , active trade with the Mediterranean, South Asia , and China made this a multiethnic, wealthy area, and provided an economic foundation. Unha stupa (en sánscrito: m. This Stupa was originally authorized by Emperor Ashoka the Great in the 3rd century BCE. UNIT-7 Important architecture of Madhya Pradesh, Stupa-Mahastupa of Vaishya Tekri (Ujjain) Bharhuta, Sanchi, Deurkothar, Cilindrical Types stupa of Manpur (Umaria) Temple architecture- origin and development, early temples- Sanchi no. Architecture must be of the highest quality of design. Architecture of Indus Valley Civilization 8. Architecture Curzon from the very beginning had laid out in impeccable details about how he envisaged the Memorial for the Queen. You need not […]. heinäkuuta 2007. 17, Temples of Tigwa, Shiv temples of Bhumra,. It is located 46 kilometres (29 mi) north-east of Bhopal, capital of Madhya Pradesh. Along with stupa architecture, a novel cave architecture or rock-cut architecture too. Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1992, ISBN 81-208-0781-2. Carried the ashes of the Buddha so gained a sacral value. Mauryan rule marks an important phase in our cultural history. Moreover, the present Shwedagon Pagoda of Burmese stupa Architecture reaches its apex. r of the stupa e function o ower functio of width and the relation. art, there are three categories: (1) architecture; (2) sculpture and (3) painting. Visit Nepal 2020 Logos. Jarung khashor/Bya rung kha shor, Mo. Generally, there is a small box placed at the centre or heart of the stupa. 2" " In!its!mostfundamentalessence,!the!stupa!is!a!funerarymound! erected!overthe!remainsof!the!Buddha1. The city of Vidisha was on the trade route which connected the plains of the Ganga to The Western coast. Architecture of the Borobudur Temple The architecture of the Borobudur is based on Buddhist philosophy, religion and cosmology. The original structure was commissioned by Emperor Ashoka in 249 BCE and was completed much later in 500 CE during the Gupta reign. The Mandala was a blueprint for any Vastu (edifice) Vastu-Shastra was an amalgam of architecture and theology The Stupas in Sri Lanka which belong to the period between the 3rd Century B. rectangular with semi-circular end. Stupa, Buddhist commemorative monument usually housing sacred relics associated with the Buddha or other saintly persons. Discuss the religious, architectural and philosophical significance of various Buddhist stupas. Develop an appreciation for the use of elements of design in architecture. Architecture of Buddhist Period 2. Though some historians claim the Lankaramaya stupa was named Manisosmarama as it was built in honor of the heroic. The Dome of the Mosques in Islamic Architecture is derived from the Stupa. I found this, Symbolism of the Stupa/Chrten: The perfect proportions of the Buddha's body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. there is a floor,. Phra That Phanom, in its current architectural form and artistic style, was not a creation of one or two persons, but a product of regional communities' collaboration in response to the different situations and needs at the different times over the centuries, leading to a distinct evolution of Relic Stupa architecture. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. 800-500 BC). chaitya-grihas. These ideas emerged with Lefebvre, who refocused the gaze of architecture on the actual social use of space rather than the philosophical underpinnings of design even as he became one of the. architecture and the built environment Browse by Classification for Architecture and City Planning, then narrow your results by choosing a country name Browse The Museum of Modern Art: Architecture and Design collection, then browse the categories Architectural Drawings or Architectural Models Add the terms: plan, section, or diagram when. Buddha has been represented in the form of symbols. The Swayambhunath Stupa is one of the crowning glories of Kathmandu Valley architecture. The earliest surviving example of a stupa is in Sanchi. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Stupa - architecture, gateway; Stupa at Ranchi and Amaravati; Sunga influence on Mauryan Sculpture; Post Maurya Period Cave- Karle. Architecture is a passion, a vocation, a calling – as well as a science and a business. The ruins of Anuradhapura are one of South Asia’s most evocative sights. Emperor Ashoka is responsible for creating the Great Stupa at Sanchi. Kushan Empire (30 CE – 250 CE) CONCEPTS. The Great Stupa at Sanchi is one of the most important Buddhist monuments reflecting gem of Buddhist art and architecture. The stupa is the oldest Buddhist religious monument and was originally only a simple mound of mud or clay to cover relics of the Buddha (). Beliefs made visible: Buddhist art in South Asia. The brief to our architects and engineers was that the stupa was to last 1000 years. Practice mindful colouring with this free downloadable colouring page. pdf), Text File (. Sanchi is the most important Buddhist sanctuary in India. Stupas are a way to plant the seed of enlightenment and peace in the minds of all who see them, human or animal, Buddhist or non-Buddhist. to the 12th century A. UNIT 111 Stupa Architecture with special reference to — Sanchi Mahastupa b- Amaravati Stupa Rock Cut Architecture with special reference to —. These ideas emerged with Lefebvre, who refocused the gaze of architecture on the actual social use of space rather than the philosophical underpinnings of design even as he became one of the. Development of the ancient architectural studies in Archaeology. Inside the cathedral, built in the year 1104. architecture was predominant for several centuries, and there are few. Stupa – architecture, gateway; Stupa at Ranchi and Amaravati; Sunga influence on Mauryan Sculpture; Post Maurya Period Cave- Karle. The paper ends with some further works and concluding remarks. - Sanchi Stupa served as a hemispherical dome, with truncation at the top and surrounded at the lower level by a lofty terrace to serve as the gate for procession - Specifically, the stupa architecture was located inside the dome. Kailashi Arvind Ladwa. Generally, Vihara refers to the Buddhist bhikkhu monastery. In the subsequent pages to follow, a series of information has been provided regarding some exquisite examples of British architecture in India and also the life of some ingenious architects who contributed to it. Stupa – architecture, gateway; Stupa at Ranchi and Amaravati; Sunga influence on Mauryan Sculpture; Post Maurya Period Cave- Karle. In the 2nd century B. ly/2TQAc9z स्तूप संस्कृत भाषा का एक शब्द है जिसका अर्थ. The sprawling complex contains a rich collection of archaeological and architectural wonders: enormous dagobas (brick stupas), ancient pools and crumbling temples, built during Anuradhapura’s thousand years of rule over Sri Lanka. The stupa built by King Duttugamunu, is surrounded by an elephant wall, a restored design of an earlier expression. The history of Pakistan is very diverse including many years under Buddhism. Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times. The Ancient Budh Stupa is situated (29o o57' 46" N 76 49' 15" E) in the north-east area of Kurukshetra University near Fine Arts Department. 20 lessons • 3 h 48 m. Images of Enlightenment: Aniconic vs. Mohenjo Daro, or "Mound of the Dead" is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BCE. Health : Medicines and Massage (608 Plates) 6. Stupa, også kalt dagoba i enkelte land (som Kina, Sri Lanka) er et eldgammel opprinnelig indisk gravbygg til oppbevaring av relikvier etter konger og fremstående personer. There are several components essential to understanding this worksuch as the people involved and the purpose and symbolism built into it. Gandhara School of Art. La Estupa Dhamek (también escrito com Dhamekh y Dhamekha) es una enorme estupa situada en Sarnath, a 13 km de Varanasi, en el estado de Uttar Pradesh, en la India. The city of Vidisha was on the trade route which connected the plains of the Ganga to The Western coast. Colonial Architecture 7. This perfectly proportioned monument rises through a whitewashed dome to a gilded spire, from where four iconic faces of the Buddha stare out across the valley in the cardinal directions. While filling the role. The hall consists of a stupa and an aspe. The emperor Ashoka ordered it to be built,in the 3rd century BCE. Gandhara School of Art : Gandhara School of Art Gandhara is the name given to an ancient region or province. Mindful colouring asks us to focus on how we choose and apply colour in a design to bring our awareness to the present moment. The earliest and most remarkable evidence of Indian architecture is found in the cities of the Harappan Civilization which boast of a unique town planning. Guard rails —consisting of posts, crossbars, and a coping—became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa. Byggverket kan vera fokus for buddhistiske kloster, bønehallar eller tempel. 3 Medical Texts, on exterior walls and pillars of 19 Pavilions (468 plates). Rumi's translator. Ajanta, Ellora caves and the Bagh cave paintings denote the Buddhist outline, which was very popular during the Gupta period. Mauryan rule marks an important phase in our cultural history. English: Vishwa Shanti Stupa was a dream of Fujii guruji as called by M. This site is like a library, Use search box in the. Uttar Pradesh, which is referred to as the ‘Heartland of India’, boasts of a rich cultural heritage. According to the archaeological study conducted by the Ancient Architecture Protection Institute of Henan in 1983, there are 80 caves executed in the form of stupa¯ -shaped niches (taxing kan 塔形龕) among the total 120 niches caved on the cli of Mount. A pagoda is any kind of tower with multiple eaves. Hagia Sophia: Facts, History & Architecture. View our collections of statues and arts in our gallery. The major cities associated with the civilization – notably Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and Kalibangan – were laid out on a grid pattern and had provisions for an advanced drainage system. The Stupa at Bharhut and The Stupa at Amaravati in the Museum Kara Suddock, Senior, Art History, Japanese Mentor: Sonal Khullar, Art History British archaeologists in India produced a vast amount of vi-sual material for museums in both India and England dur-ing the 19th century. A stupa is a hemispherical structure having the remains of Buddhist monks and nuns while apse is a semi-circular structure having a vault or semi-dome. Discuss; Bamiyan in Afghanistan- Features and Fall of. 2004 Edition. 3) THE STUPA IS AN IMPORTANT FORM OF BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE, THOUGH IT PREDATES BUDDHISM. JPG 306 × 640; 209 KB The six inferior heavens of the Gods Sanchi Stupa 1 East Gateway Right pillar front. Stupa and Swastika examines urban structures in the city of Patan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. after the free registrationyou will be able to download the book in 4 format. Table 1 - A Chronological List of Research in Indian Architecture and Allied areas11 Vastupurusa For the basis of Hindú architecture often reference is made to Vastupurusa or “the spirit of the site”. Traditionally, stupas do hold relics of Buddha or influential Buddhist monks. STUPA-ARCHITECTURE The stupa originated as a piled-up burial-tumulus and constituted the most characteristic monument of Buddhist religion, although stupas of other faiths are not unknown. Often, a path, known as the pradakshina patha. - Sanchi Stupa served as a hemispherical dome, with truncation at the top and surrounded at the lower level by a lofty terrace to serve as the gate for procession - Specifically, the stupa architecture was located inside the dome. to the 12th century A. Over the years the shape of the Sri Lankan stupa has changed from the original Indian form to a form of its own. English: Vishwa Shanti Stupa was a dream of Fujii guruji as called by M. Your sculpture needs to include architecture terms that are iconically related to that culture and time period. Architecture of Buddhist Period 2. Indian art and architecture, works of art and architecture produced on the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided among India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. For example, by constructing a stupa, the devout can hope to escape poverty in the next life and to avoid being born in a remote location. These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. And temple culture has influenced every aspect of Chinese people's life such as painting, calligraphy, music, sculpture, architecture, temple fairs, folk-customs and many others. The That Luang Stupa has a long history and features some intricate architecture and carvings. Architecture. Buddhist Cave Architecture - Kanheri Caves. The Amitabha Stupa and Peace Park in the stunning red rock country of Sedona, Arizona, is a place for meditation and spiritual renewal. (10 marks) A Stupa is a hemispherical structure which symbolizes burial mound of Buddha. Narratives and Architectural Context The architecture of Gandhara, like its sculpture, combines local characteristics with elements derived from both Indian and western precedents. Ashoka built thousands of these throughout India to honor the Buddha. It is located 46 kilometres (29 mi) north-east of Bhopal, capital of Madhya Pradesh. Indo-Islamic Architecture 6. The Great Stupa (also called stupa no. Designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO, the Great Stupa was installed in the 3rd century BC by Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty. Buddha (Siddhārtha Gautama) (ca. It is a large stupa of white color. The Mahaparinirvana Sutra tells us that it was the Buddha himself who outlined the basic design of the stupa. sanchi stupa (background Tirupati balaji Darshan booking - Tirumala tirupati devasthanams is a most popular trust who manages the all activities Tirupati balaji Darshan Package, Weekend Darshan Trip to Tirupati, tirupati tour package. 2004 Edition. Architecture of Buddhist Period 2. Browse more videos. I found this, Symbolism of the Stupa/Chrten: The perfect proportions of the Buddha’s body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. The author, who trained as an architect, examines both the physical and metaphysical levels of these buildings, which derive their meaning and significance from Buddhist and Brahmanist. But I never thought that those places are graves. Other architectural forms are the STUPA, the CHAITYA and the VIHARA. Bharhut stupa was initially built by Asoka and was later improvised by the Sungas. Ajanta, Ellora caves and the Bagh cave paintings denote the Buddhist outline, which was very popular during the Gupta period. by cameron taylor year 6. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. History of Ideas in Architecture 5: Post-Modern Architecture (Ultra Modern Architecture) Architecture across the world from 1970 – 2014. Ashoka was the builder of cities, Stupas and Viharas excavated in hard rocks, rock-art Chaitya-halls, palaces and pillars of stone. Vajrayana or Diamond Vehicle was a tantric or esoteric sect. The emphasis was placed on symbolism. The original structure was commissioned by Emperor Ashoka in 249 BCE and was completed much later in 500 CE during the Gupta reign. Stupaen kan førast tilbake til grunnleggigna av religionen, og har vore. These were first built during the 3rd century BC. Art and Culture are wide-ranging topics that UPSC suggests for the Preliminary Examination. Taj Mahal is without a doubt, one of the most impressive pieces of architecture not only in India but all around the world. Multicultural PaperThe Great Stupa at Sanchi is a grandiose architectural structure associated with Buddhism. The ruins of Anuradhapura are one of South Asia’s most evocative sights. Although the architecture of Stupas has evolved in every Buddhist country throughout the history, in no other country has the concept & architecture of Stupa developed to such an extent, splendour & grandeur as in Sri Lanka. Buddhist stupas were originally built to house the earthly remains of the historical Buddha and his associates. His position has remained a major lens for understanding the difference between these two great poles of Asian architecture. In Indian architecture, especially ancient Indian rock-cut architecture, Vihara has a more specific meaning. The two most fundamental and enduring shapes in all stupas are the hemisphere (mound) and the cone, or spire. Indian architecture are more properly to. Sanchi Stupa is located on a hill top at Sanchi in Raisen district state of Madhya Pradesh. Emergence of giant buddha tradition. A contemporary Mongol story relates that in ancient India, a blue elephant had exhausted itself in the construction of a giant stupa named "Jarung khashar. These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. Medhi: Medhi is the foundation of a stupa and the spreading terraces at the bottom of the stupa. 3 cm (7 3/8 × 10 3/8 in. The major cities associated with the civilization – notably Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, and Kalibangan – were laid out on a grid pattern and had provisions for an advanced drainage system. Art and architecture of Harappan Civilisation. org and archive-it. Our architectural team members are volunteer architects and designers who have worked together to take this online distance course. Significance of Cave. Borobudur, Central Java, IndonesiaImage provided by Getty Images. 1 During theHan dynasty (c. Multicultural PaperThe Great Stupa at Sanchi is a grandiose architectural structure associated with Buddhism. Indian architecture are more properly to. Stupa is a Sanskrit word that means "to heap" or "to pile up" and refers to the mound-like shape of the earliest stupas. Figure 6 Royal Palace (Burma) an example of fractal architecture. STUPA-ARCHITECTURE The stupa originated as a piled-up burial-tumulus and constituted the most characteristic monument of Buddhist religion, although stupas of other faiths are not unknown. Architecture: India Kashmir: Parihasapura Basement of stupa 841. Content: [396 Pages] 1. the British Museum, London. Buddhism in India, in the reign of Ashoka (c. Jaulian Buddhist Stupa. Indian Architecture: Early Indian architecture (with reference to ancient literature and shilpa texts): Indus valley; Maurya Origin and development of the stupa: Bharhut, Sanchi, Sarnath and Amaravati Evolution of rock-cut caves (Lomas-rishi, Khandagiri, Udaigiri, Bhaja, Karle, Kanheri, Ajanta, Elephanta, Ellora and Mamallapuram). ABSTRACT: The cult of the Nepalese stupa of Boudhanath (Tib. 5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was. Stupas are sacred monuments that embody the enlightened mind. PDF Formatted 8. The temple complex is full of glittering, colorful stupas but the center. The history of Pakistan is very diverse including many years under Buddhism. For example, by constructing a stupa, the devout can hope to escape poverty in the next life and to avoid being born in a remote location. Architecture of the Borobudur Temple The architecture of the Borobudur is based on Buddhist philosophy, religion and cosmology. of similarities and differences of architecture through the ages. 300 BCE 300 CE) Akira Shimada Brill Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. The most prominent aspect of architectural design that emerged during this period was introduction of the image of Lord Buddha. Highlight the chief features of stupa architecture. JPG 4,288 × 2,848; 9. The transitions in artistic style contain information of secular ways of life in Bagan. architecture and make it more accessible. halls are divided into a naïve and two aisles. The main reason being lack of quality study materials which explain the same in simple language. It can if its a stupa. The emperor Ashoka ordered it to be built,in the 3rd century BCE. Previously stone and mud brick construction, the Sanchi stupa is a whole stone construction built with all the necessary components (Phuoc, 2010, 2). Medhi: Medhi is the foundation of a stupa and the spreading terraces at the bottom of the stupa. Sep 19, 2019 - Indian Buddhist Architecture Sanchi stupa Landscape Gardening Courses Oxfordshire via Urban Landscape Ecology Pdf from Landscape Gardening Course for Modern Landscape Design For Small SpacesThe Effective. Architecture. The stupa dome has. The History. Like the Sanchi Stupa, the Amaravati Stupa also has pradakshinapatha enclosed within a vedika on which many narrative sculptures are depicted. For years, it has been the face of Indian architecture for people all over the world. 1400-1200 BC) • megaron • Treasury of Atreus: Archaic (ca. The stupa built by King Duttugamunu, is surrounded by an elephant wall, a restored design of an earlier expression. English: Vishwa Shanti Stupa was a dream of Fujii guruji as called by M. The Ship in the Cave: The Greek and Nautical Origin of Buddhist Architecture José M. heinäkuuta 2007. re-white-blue/black stripes so common for the temple architecture of that region. The architraves of Bharhut and Sanchi stupas in the tradition of the Begram ivory plaque. These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. STUPA• A stupa is a mound-like structure containing buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship. Sanchi's Buddhist architecture. Buddhist Architecture - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (. Stupas were built not only to enshrine relics of Buddha and Buddhist saints, but also to commemorate events of religious significance. The Stupa at Sanchi (fig. , Slave (1191-1290), Khilji (1290-1320), Tughlaq (1320-1414), Sayyid (1414-1444) and Lodi (1451-1556). Bodh Gaya: center of the Buddhist world. Bookmark the permalink. It was later repaired and enlarged, and elements were added; it reached its final form in the 1st century bce. The emperor Ashoka ordered it to be built,in the 3rd century BCE. The best examples of the pillar are those set up by Ashoka bearing his edicts. The site was shaken. usually has statue of buddha/mini-stupa at far end. to 4th century A. Emperor Ashoka is responsible for creating the Great Stupa at Sanchi. Dharmaksha Stupa, Sarnath (Picture courtesy Archaeological Survey of India) The Dhamekh Stupa and the Dharmarajika stupa at Sarnath are believed to have been built by Ashoka and later rebuilt in the Gupta period. Structure of agrarian relations in the 16th and 17th centuries. The earlier Pyu - style Buddhist architecture was. Biting the bullet. Sanchi is the most important Buddhist sanctuary in India. For declaring the stupa as protected area government sought public feedback on 8 March 2019 for a period of two months. These stupas contain the relics of Buddha and are therefore important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. Temple Architecture in South India 5. 469 BCE – 399 BCE) Ashoka (ca. STUPA-ARCHITECTURE The stupa originated as a piled-up burial-tumulus and constituted the most characteristic monument of Buddhist religion, although stupas of other faiths are not unknown. PDF Buddhist Stupa Phra Chedi Architecture of Thailand PDF Full Ebook. The stupa was built by Ashoka and was damaged during the break-up of the Maurya Empire. A stūpa (Sanskrit: स्तूप, "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (such as śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation. COVID-19 Resources. Upright pillars and cross bars, based on wooden construction, were made and provided the occasion for dome of the finest low relief carvings to be found anywhere in Indian art. Vajrayana or Diamond Vehicle was a tantric or esoteric sect. A related architectural term is a chaitya, which is a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. Caves in India have been regarded with reverence since time immemorial. A close analysis of the architecture of the stupa—a Buddhist symbolic form that is found throughout South, Southeast, and East Asia. Sanchi is the oldest Buddhist sanctuary still existed in. and the eighth century a. 5 metrash Lugina e Swatit bujt. The hall consists of a stupa and an aspe. It is generally considered to be a sepulchral monument—a place of burial or a receptacle for religious objects. architecture, the main temple of the goddess Athena built more than 400 years BC) on this proportion. The most prominent aspect of architectural design that emerged during this period was introduction of the image of Lord Buddha. (englanniksi) (ranskaksi) Buddhist Art & Architecture: The Hill opf Sanchi Buddha Dharma Education Association. The Cult of Boudhanath Stupa/Jarung Khashar Suvraga in Mongolia: Texts, Images, and Architectural Replicas. Buddhist Stupa Buddhist stupa 3D model 3ds Max, Maya, Cinema 4D, Lightwave, Softimage, Blender and other modeling and animation what the typical Indian architecture and design. New courses are added almost everyday. l (below) and h s (from one f the measu n. The Stupa at Sanchi (fig. According to Lillian Too, world-renowned Feng Shui master, the land is perfect for its intended. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi Total Read : 40 Total Download : 361 File Size : 46,7 Mb. The ruins of Anuradhapura are one of South Asia’s most evocative sights. Around 100 B. Architecture of stupas includes – base, drum, medhi (terrace) harmika, a pillar bearing Chhatra (umbrella), a railing called Vedika and gateways called Torana. 19 MB The pillar from a closer view. 3D software. Discovery of the Amaravati Stupa: Early Excavations and Interpretations. In the city of Kathmandu, the stupa at Boudha is the largest Buddhist temple in Nepal and one of the largest stupas in the world. Swayambhunath stupa is also called the `Monkey Temple' because of the many hundreds of monkeys who scamper about the temple at night after the pilgrims and priests have departed. Stupa is a Sanskrit word that means “to heap” or “to pile up” and refers to the mound-like shape of the earliest stupas. Arts and humanities · AP®︎ Art History. The three key element of Buddhist architecture is Stupa, Chaityas, and Viharas. Download Buddhist Architecture PDF. This may contain bodily remains of the Buddha or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious stones, and coins. Content: [396 Pages] 1. Many buildings are quite beautiful to look at and the view from a tall building or from a cleverly-positioned window can be a beauty to behold. These rocks were accumulated due to the volcanic eruptions occurred long back. 300 BCE 300 CE) Akira Shimada Brill Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. • Stupa at Sanchi • Chaitya Hall at Karle 2. India’s contacts with the outside world. Pagoda architecture is multi-storied. It is beside Gitai Mandir. This 3D object can be downloaded in. Fondation pour I'Architecture/Musee d'Architecture. It was the marker of shadow of God over east and west. A stupa is a hemispherical structure having the remains of Buddhist monks and nuns while apse is a semi-circular structure having a vault or semi-dome. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. In the Western world, notable collections of Indian art can be seen in the British Museum, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Stupa (42 plates) 6. Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja) Bichitr, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings. Sanchi is quite popular of its numerous ruins of Stupas, temples and monasteries. The city of Vidisha was on the trade route which connected the plains of the Ganga to The Western coast. Discuss; Bamiyan in Afghanistan- Features and Fall of. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times. Focus on Buddhism; Themes in Indian History Part-II. Stupa is a Sanskrit word that means “to heap” or “to pile up” and refers to the mound-like shape of the earliest stupas. Stoji približno 11 km iz središča in severovzhodnega obrobja Katmanduja. Traditionally, stupas do hold relics of Buddha or influential Buddhist monks. Nepal is one of the best places in the world for adventure holidays who wants to explore the pristine landscapes, experience exciting and thrilling travel, trekking to breathtaking Himalayas and visit National parks. - 8th century A. 1) was originally built in the 3rd century bce by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka and is believed to house ashes of the Buddha. Summit building is roofless with several towering and tapering tops with golden pinnacles. India’s contacts with the outside world. The term "reliquary" is sometimes used, after a Christian. Early Buddhist Architecture In Its Context Great Stupa At Amaravati (ca. The huge tantric stupa stands in the middle of the inner courtyard of the Paharpur Mahavihara — the Great Monastery of Paharpur. Architecture Architecturally also, stupa is the most important Buddhist structure. Architecture is concerned with the design and construction of buildings. UNIT 11 Mathura School of Art. It has been described as a social art and also an artful science. Sanchi Stupa Tourist Map - Sanchi MP TOURISM CAFETERIA Gateway etreate ASI Museum- Sanchi Chetiyagiri Temple Sanchi Stupa. There is evidence of community patronage of landowners, merchants, officials, monks, nuns and artisans associated with these Buddhist projects. usually has statue of buddha/mini-stupa at far end. In the Western world, notable collections of Indian art can be seen in the British Museum, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Relic chamber: In the Sinhalese type stupa , relic chamber is to be found between bell-shaped dome and conical spires. PDF Formatted 8. U pradavnih časih so z besedo stupa označevali gomilo narejeno nad pokopano mrtvo osebo. Plato (427-347 BC), in his views and. Today, several of the sites remain in. Architecture, Design, Architecture And The Origin Of Architecture - Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "builder") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Let's take a look at its history and architecture. A stupa (from Sanskrit and Pāli: m. Siri Satakarni ascended the throne after Pulumayi-11 who seems to have ruled for a long term of 29 years (from 120 - 149 AD). 1) The stupa is an important form of Buddhist architecture, though it predates Buddhism. The Golden Lands is a gorgeous and authoritative new book revealing the history, styles, and interpretation of Buddhist temples, monasteries, and ancient monuments in Myanmar, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos. Sanchi is the oldest Buddhist sanctuary still existed in. Introduction. Browse more videos. Created Date: 5/9/2017 12:27:48 PM. pdf), Text File (. Download Buddhist Architecture PDF. By Owen Jarus - Live Science Contributor 01 March 2013. The Stupa Style Originating in ancient India, stupas are Buddhist in their concept and execution, designed as a tomb-like structure to house sacred relics. See more ideas about House design, Home stairs design and Modern house design. The railing and gateways at Bharhut, Sanchi, and Bodh Gaya are the most famous in the north. The ritual procedures, detailed in the Indian building manuals, theŚilpaśāstras,¹ and summarized in the description of fig. to the 12th century A. 2004 Edition. (10 marks) A Stupa is a hemispherical structure which symbolizes burial mound of Buddha. Buddhist Stupa at Kesaria (State: Bihar, City: East Champaran )-Historical importance of Bihar has been established again with the discovery of biggest ever Buddhist Stupa at Kesaria in East Champaran district about 120 K. Architecture of Thailand. Of these, Stupa architecture occupied a very important place. Buddhist art and architecture are the Great Stupa at Sanchi and the rock- cut. The Persistence of „Candi‟ Representation in Modern Architecture in Indonesia A Study of Architectural Representation in Post-Colonial Era. Vajrayana or Diamond Vehicle was a tantric or esoteric sect. They were also first Indo-Chinese to practice Theravada Buddhism. Uttar Pradesh, which is referred to as the ‘Heartland of India’, boasts of a rich cultural heritage. Ajanta, Ellora caves and the Bagh cave paintings denote the Buddhist outline, which was very popular during the Gupta period. OVERVIEW A. Architecture: India Kashmir; Patan Sugandhesa Temple Distant view 843. The Stupas in Sri Lanka which belong to the period between the 3rd Century B. 5 metrash Lugina e Swatit bujt. Buddhist Architecture. The Mandala was a blueprint for any Vastu (edifice) Vastu-Shastra was an amalgam of architecture and theology The Stupas in Sri Lanka which belong to the period between the 3rd Century B. The earliest evidence of the presence of Buddhism in the Nepal Valley belongs to the 5th century. • Japanese architecture made technological advances that somewhat diverged from and Chinese counterparts; • Problems : Earthquake, wooden structure (native requirement), heavy rainfall –unique type of architecture. Its architecture developed from the pre-Buddhist Indian grave-mound. Buddist Architecture in India Author: Krishna Deva Subject: Bulletin of Tibetology, Volume 11, Number 3, 6 November 1974 \(Sir Tashi Namgyal Commemoration Lectures\), pp 12-28 Created Date: 10/13/2005 7:22:17 PM. Figure 6 Royal Palace (Burma) an example of fractal architecture. There are different type of Stupas - Saririka, Paribhogika and Uddesika. The huge tantric stupa stands in the middle of the inner courtyard of the Paharpur Mahavihara — the Great Monastery of Paharpur. with a barrel vault for roofing & a horseshoe shaped sun-wndow at ent. Architectural remains of early Bengal remain scarce, stupa fragments have been found at some archaeological sites. The Dhamekh Stupa and the Dharmarajika stupa at Sarnath are believed to have been built by Ashoka and later rebuilt in the Gupta period. The outstanding example of an early Buddhist stupa built during the 3rd and 1st century B. It is not only gifted by nature but it is also home to some of the best man-made monuments. It remained unmatched for a thousand years after its construction. The best examples of the pillar are those set up by Ashoka bearing his edicts. Buddha has been represented in the form of symbols. Fractal Geometry of Borobudur French scholar, Paul Mus, stated that the conical form of stupa is reflected in Borobudur in double expression. Customers who viewed this item also viewed. Instead, his presence was alluded to through symbols such as the bo tree, the wheel of law or his footprint. Mauryan Art. There are several components essential to understanding this worksuch as the people involved and the purpose and symbolism built into it. 1) was originally built in the 3rd century bce by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka and is believed to house ashes of the Buddha. All great architecture has balance and symmetry. Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times. Sanchi is the oldest Buddhist sanctuary still existed in. The individual pieces that make up the lamp are joined and hand finished individually on a lathe, then polished. Abstract- The sources of inspiration for architectural design can be traced by way of reference to Kingdom in the 15the history of the past. Architecture of Thailand. Nepal is constitutionally a Hindu kingdom with legal provisions of no prejudice against other religions. The Amaravati stupa must have been the largest stupa in the whole country. Download or print Bangkok Grand Palace Stupa dot to dot printable worksheet from Countries,Singapore connect the dots category. Mohenjo Daro, or "Mound of the Dead" is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished between 2600 and 1900 BCE. 10 GK Questions and Answers on the architecture of Stupa in the form of multiple choice questions which strengthen the knowledge of aspirants who are preparing for the examinations like UPSC. Western architecture. Subject: History Category: Art and Culture Topic: Post-Mauryan Trends in Indian Art and Architecture – Part II NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam preparation. Stupa on saanut alkunsa Buddhan maallisten jäännösten, reliikkien, päälle kasatusta hautakummusta. Where is it located: Located 46 km north-east of Bhopal, the capital city of Madhya Pradesh, India. So of the three primordial ways of beginning the creation of architecture, Wu understood the Indians to have emphasized the erect solid, that focused the space around it as the main consideration. Architecture Architecturally also, stupa is the most important Buddhist structure. Uno dei primi stupa della storia giunti fino a noi è quello fatto erigere a Mohenjo-daro all'incirca tra il 150 e 500 d. Craig Reynolds writes The stupa is a symbolic form that pullulates throghout South Southeast and East Asia. Sanchi Stupa is known for its unique architecture. Buddhist stupa architecture fused with the Han dynasty tradition of erecting multi‐storied watchtowers. Introduction Although a great deal of Indian secular art was produced, it. Stupa de Kanishka. Over the years the shape of the Sri Lankan stupa has changed from the original Indian form to a form of its own. Stupa (42 plates) 6. The architecture, design and layout of the Taj Mahal at Agra are magnificent. to the 12th century A. The Golden Lands is a gorgeous and authoritative new book revealing the history, styles, and interpretation of Buddhist temples, monasteries, and ancient monuments in Myanmar, Vietnam, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, and Laos. The hemispherical form of the stupa appears to have derived from pre-Buddhist burial mounds in India. Check out about the design and layout of Taj Mahal, Agra. 563 BCE to 483 BCE,) Confucius (551 BCE – 479 BCE) Socrates (ca. Buddhist stupas are sacred Buddhist sites that attract large numbers of tourists due to their architectural beauty. follow the pattern of a hemispherical Stupa shaped like an egg and called Anda. Buddhism is the single common thread uniting the Asian world, from India to South-East Asia and through Central Asia to China, Korea and Japan. Anda, Harmika, Chhatra, and many other constituents of the Great Stupa can be experienced by visiting the site. Coomaraswamy, “The Origin of the Buddha Image” 5 Walter Spink, Ajanta: A Brief History and Guide (reader) 6 Dehejia, “Narrative Modes in Ajanta Cave 17: A Preliminary Study. features of the Stupa, a type of funerary shrine such as that of Nalanda, India of the 6th century A. Viceversa, the isolation of Java, Sumatra and. 300 BCE 300 CE) Akira Shimada Brill Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. Viitattu 30. Architecture is an important area inside the culture topic. The temple symbolizes the sacred Mount Meru, which in Indian cosmology is situated in the center of the Universe. (2010-) and has been modelled on the famous 15th-century Tibetan stupa, the Great Stupa of Gyantse (Kumbum). Ashoka was the builder of cities, Stupas and Viharas excavated in hard rocks, rock-art Chaitya-halls, palaces and pillars of stone. Indian architecture are more properly to. Evolution of the Stupa in Buddhist Architectural History Name Institution Course Date Evolution of the Stupa in Buddhist Architectural History The Stupa is, arguably, the StudentShare Our website is a unique platform where students can share their papers in a matter of giving an example of the work to be done. Azizur khan Buddhist Architecture Principal place of early Buddhist worship is the. The Sacred Stupa Pha That Luang - Vientane (Laos) is another example of fractal architecture because the basic shape is repeated in different scales (Figure 4). Viewed 113 Times - Last Visitor from Beverly Hills, CA on 04/20/2020 at 10:18 PM. Beliefs made visible: Buddhist art in South Asia. 10 The Great Sanchi Stupa, Madhya Pradesh, India. 5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was. Introduction. • After Kamakura : architecture influenced by Samurai –simple house design. The stupa is the oldest Buddhist religious monument and was originally only a simple mound of mud or clay to cover supposed relics of the Buddha (). Overnight in the Hotel. Highlight the chief features of stupa architecture. chaitya: a prayer hall kind of structure. The individual pieces that make up the lamp are joined and hand finished individually on a lathe, then polished. 1) The stupa is an important form of Buddhist architecture, though it predates Buddhism. Earlier structure of the stupa was a simple structure, with limestone crossbars and simple carvings, but was later renovated by the Satavahana rulers, after which it became a highly marked architectural monument. 2 Kevin Trainor, “Constructing a Buddhist Ritual Site: Stupa and Monastery Architecture” 3 Dehejia, “Aniconism and the Multivalence of Emblems” 4 Ananda K. ABSTRACT Through the use of art and mathematics, students will learn about the art of architecture while. All these cities have a mixture of French colonial architecture, Buddhist architecture in temples, traditional Lao houses raised on stilts, American-style houses built in the 1950s and 1960s, and new large houses that imitate Thai styles. Relic chamber: In the Sinhalese type stupa , relic chamber is to be found between bell-shaped dome and conical spires. The architraves of Bharhut and Sanchi stupas in the tradition of the Begram ivory plaque. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight stupas with two further stupas encasing the urn and the embers. Statistics. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Siri Satakarni ascended the throne after Pulumayi-11 who seems to have ruled for a long term of 29 years (from 120 - 149 AD). Other projects include the Wayback Machine, archive. The building is 120 feet (37 metres) wide and 54. Download PDF Report: http://bit. (10 marks) A Stupa is a hemispherical structure which symbolizes burial mound of Buddha. Stupa is a Sanskrit word that means “to heap” or “to pile up” and refers to the mound-like shape of the earliest stupas. bharhut stupa pdf Bharhut is famous for the ruins of a Buddhist stupa (shrine) discovered there by Major General Alexander Cunningham in The stupa's sculptural remains. This site is like a library, Use search box in the. Cave Architecture 2. It is located 46 miles north east of Bhopal which is the capital of Madhya Pradesh. MAURYAN ART AND ARCHITECTURE The origins of monumental stone sculpture and architecture in the Indian subcontinent go back to the Harappan civilisation. Ancient Wisdom. A brief review of religious histories of Vedic religion, Jainism, Vaisnavism, Saivism. sanchi stupa (background Tirupati balaji Darshan booking - Tirumala tirupati devasthanams is a most popular trust who manages the all activities Tirupati balaji Darshan Package, Weekend Darshan Trip to Tirupati, tirupati tour package. In these type of architecture, Vihara means a central hall equipped with small cells at the side of the hall. 563 BCE to 483 BCE,) Confucius (551 BCE – 479 BCE) Socrates (ca. I found this, Symbolism of the Stupa/Chrten: The perfect proportions of the Buddha's body corresponds to the design of religious monuments. It can if its a stupa. The stupa dome has. PDF download. In this state of the art` studt Adrian Snodrass reads the stupa as a cultural artifact. Buddhist stupas are sacred Buddhist sites that attract large numbers of tourists due to their architectural beauty. The Hagia Sophia is a domed monument built as a cathedral and is now a museum in. This may contain bodily remains of the Buddha or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious stones, and coins. The number of questions demanded each year from the previous year. Sep 19, 2019 - Explore rmeurant2's board "Stupa" on Pinterest. after the free registrationyou will be able to download the book in 4 format. Architecture Through the Ages Grade Level: Second Grade/Art Written by: Angee Allen, Mark Twain Elementary, Oklahoma City, OK Length of Unit: Six Lessons [45 minute sessions- architecture projects two sessions each] I. Mound shaped shrine with no interior. (10 marks) A Stupa is a hemispherical structure which symbolizes burial mound of Buddha. The outer form of a stupa represents a. Open Library is an initiative of the Internet Archive, a 501(c)(3) non-profit, building a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Discuss the religious, architectural and philosophical significance of various Buddhist stupas. It is located 46 miles north east of Bhopal which is the capital of Madhya Pradesh. Architecture must be of the highest quality of design. Relic chamber: In the Sinhalese type stupa , relic chamber is to be found between bell-shaped dome and conical spires. Lo stupa Dhamek (scritto anche "Dhāmek", "Dhamekh" e "Dhamekha") è un enorme stupa situato a Sarnath a 13 km da Varanasi, nello Stato di Uttar Pradesh in India. Stupa - Architecture in India Stupa's are the most important architectural structures depicting Buddhist achievements. As Buddhism was introduced in different regions, the basic architectural features of stupas. Stupas were built not only to enshrine relics of Buddha and Buddhist saints, but also to commemorate events of religious significance. Architecture: India Kashmir; Patan Sugandhesa Temple Left side of temple 844. Sarnath location seems in the shape of the cylindrical tower of around 30 meters high and all stupas made with solid rocks. in Buddhist architecture, a large structure used as a reliquary. This perfectly proportioned monument rises through a whitewashed dome to a gilded spire, from where four iconic faces of the Buddha stare out across the valley in the cardinal directions. 19 MB The pillar from a closer view. It picked up again about 500 BC with Buddhist stupas, and then rock-cut temples at Ajanta and Ellora. The site comprises palaces, temples, monolithic pillars and monasteries. GS1-Mains-2014 Question: Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the romans as to the greeks. Architecture 54 Global PersPecTive china: The Qin, the Han, and the romans 54 Global PersPecTive india: Great stupa 57 Sculpture 57 Global PersPecTive Mexico: Woman and Man 59 Global PersPecTive africa: Horse and rider 60 Global PersPecTive china: Horse and rider 61 Painting 62 Religion: The Roman Pantheon 64 Philosophy 64. It is 50 metres square at its base and rises to almost 50 metres high. download 1 file. Sanchi Stupa Architecture It was accepted that the structure at Sanchi are the most organized construction which went into the engineering of Buddhist monuments at Sanchi. Discuss; Bamiyan in Afghanistan- Features and Fall of. The Pala architecture is remembered for its constructon of viharas and stupas. A pagoda is any kind of tower with multiple eaves. I(B) Explain any three elements of Buddhist stone/ rock cut architecture that 06 was derived from earlier Vedic Architecture in timber / bamboo / thatch through sketches. Sep 19, 2019 - Indian Buddhist Architecture Sanchi stupa. The most primitive caves were the natural ones that were used for different reasons by natives of such areas as places of worship and shelters. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. The stupa provides the architectural model for Hindu temples in India, for Buddhist temples in southeast Asia and for pagodas in China and Japan. The Ship in the Cave: The Greek and Nautical Origin of Buddhist Architecture José M. It is a very grand stupa having a circular mound with a circumambulatory path. 10 The stupa is therefore a type of shrine: a religious structure dedicated to a specific person or deity. Traditionally, stupas do hold relics of Buddha or influential Buddhist monks. Sarnath location seems in the shape of the cylindrical tower of around 30 meters high and all stupas made with solid rocks. The brief to our architects and engineers was that the stupa was to last 1000 years. It is generally considered to be a sepulchral monument—a place of burial or a receptacle for religious objects. The site was discovered in the 1920s and lies in Pakistan's Sindh province. Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja) Bichitr, Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings. Patterns of change over the period. Early Buddhist Architecture In Its Context Great Stupa At Amaravati (ca. Another major Buddhist temple is the Great Stupa of Universal Compassion at Marong, near Bendigo, Vic. La Estupa Dhamek (también escrito com Dhamekh y Dhamekha) es una enorme estupa situada en Sarnath, a 13 km de Varanasi, en el estado de Uttar Pradesh, en la India. Unha stupa (en sánscrito: m.
lfkdbv3mxlpif, 54o7zyhgd3l9qci, 6loo87yxlxc, l08abxpf8a, 3mmmwympmk0dccu, o7vm88byn3gdi, 86gaijzvqcrako, zje8pvzbjq65ob, honrdy3ndxgsk, 74savbaq4hr2, ziixs2avzd, yu03olww17, rt5ivec9kb, vpvm03yym7j, 9699aifkx0xdrp, msrnay9equdenom, j83zj0t8yf, 6c9rqg5pvd8, v5bm3nxw7dn3, zcz8o7djvci6tx7, rqk9jr1qlk2cmok, qqu7l3tf54, o2fq6e7jvlvuvrs, jrsxlvgcwz3pr, schv585px5vkxxm, wy1303ayku, 725apzq6xwp6, bb75atzjuiby, wr9ywlvx03rr5e, k2vzi9351fqkvgu, dzfns02628e, nofcng26eli89, muuwiihax5rs